Never Stop Learn

Senin, 07 Oktober 2019


Structurally, words are divisible into smaller units which are called morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest indivisible two-facet (significant) units. A morpheme exists only as a constituent part of the word.

One morpheme may have different phonemic shapes, i.e. it is represented by allomorphs (its variants),
e.g. in please, pleasure, pleasant [pli:z] , [ple3-], [plez-] are allomorphs of one morpheme.
Semantically, all morphemes are classified into roots and affixes. The root is the lexical centre of the word, its basic part; it has an individual lexical meaning,
e.g. in help, helper, helpful, helpless, helping, unhelpful - help- is the root.
Affixes are used to build stems; they are classified into prefixes and suffixes; there are also infixes. A prefix precedes the root, a suffix follows it; an infix is inserted in the body of the word,


e.g. prefixes: re-think, mis-take, dis-cover, over-eat, ex-wife;
suffixes: danger-ous, familiar-ize, kind-ness, swea-ty etc.
Structurally, morphemes fall into: free morphemes, bound morphemes, semi-bound (semi-free) morphemes.
A free morpheme is one that coincides with a stem or a word-form. A great many root-morphemes are free,
e.g. in friendship the root -friend- is free as it coincides with a word-form of the noun friend.
A bound morpheme occurs only as a part of a word. All affixes are bound morphemes because they always make part of a word,
e.g. in friendship the suffix -ship is a bound morpheme.
Some root morphemes are also bound as they always occur in combination with other roots and/or affixes,
e.g. in conceive, receive, perceive -ceive- is a bound root.
To this group belong so-called combining forms, root morphemes of Greek and Latin origin,
e.g. tele-, mega, -logy, micro-, -phone: telephone, microphone, telegraph, etc.
Semi-bound morphemes are those that can function both as a free root morpheme and as an affix (sometimes with a change of sound form and/or meaning),

Source :


Arsip Blog