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Senin, 07 Oktober 2019


Fonologi atau Phonology dalam Bahasa Inggris, merupakan gabungan dari kata “phone” yang berarti “bunyi” dan “logy” yang berasal dari Bahasa latin “logos” yang berarti “ilmu”. Secara harfiah, fonologi adalah ilmu bunyi. Fonologi merupakan bagian dari ilmu bahasa yang mengkaji bunyi. Objek kajian fonologi di dalam Ilmu Linguistik dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu: Fonetik/Phonetics dan Fonemik/Phonemics. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa fonologi adalah cabang Ilmu Linguistik yang mengkaji bunyi-bunyi bahasa, proses terbentuknya dan perubahannya. Fonologi mengkaji bunyi bahasa secara umum dan fungsional.

Grafologi mengkaji tentang jenis simbol, jumlah simbol, penggunaan simbol, paduan simbol degnan bahasa lisan.

Mari kita pelajari dari sumber yang lain tentang phonology

1. Definitions

Phonology is that branch of linguistics which studies the sound system of languages. The sound system involves
  • the actual pronunciation of words, which can be broken up into the smallest units of pronunciation, known as a segment or a phoneme. ( The words pat, chat and fat have different phonemes at the beginning, and so phonemes contrast with each other to produce different words.)
  • prosody – pitch, loudness, tempo and rhythm – the ‘music’ of speech. (Other terms used are non-segmental phonology or supra-segmental phonology.)

We shall focus more on the former because there is very little information about historical prosody!

(It might also be relevant to say here that we will distinguish phonetics from phonology. The former concentrates on the actual sound-making and could be thought of as being more akin to physics; the latter concentrates on how sounds are organised in individual languages. In order to do phonology, therefore, you will necessarily need to know at least some of the phonetics.)

IPA Symbol
Alternative Symbols

Alternative Symbols

loch (Scottish)

Description: Description: (American)

Description: Description: (American)
Description: Description: (American)

Description: Description: (American)

settle (Cockney)


y (American)

2. The IPA
Phonologists and phoneticians generally have to use special symbols – usually the IPA, or International Phonetic Alphabet.

This module does not attempt to teach you the IPA, although we will introduce you to the symbols used for English.

One word of warning: we said that English spelling was phonetic, more or less; we also said that English spelling sometimes represents morphemes as well. We need to careful, therefore, and not assume that every letter represents a phoneme. For example, people often talk about ‘dropping the g’ in words like talking and running (often written as talkin’ and runnin’), whereas <ng> in talking represents one sound /N/, and <n’> in talkin’ represents another sound /n/; ‘dropping’ suggests that one sound has been left out.

Another convention that might be useful to mention here is that orthographic symbols (including spelling) are indicated by the use of angle brackets, as in <ch>; phonetic symbols are indicated by the use of square brackets, as in [k]; and phonemes are indicated by the use of oblique strokes, as in /k/.

 BACA JUGA : what is phonology ?

There are a number of websites that you can go to for further information.
·         You can go to a web page maintained by Michael Quinion for a quick introduction: 
·         You can also go to Peter Ladefoged’s website that also contains sound files for you to listen to how the phonetic symbols are pronounced: (Peter Ladefoged is a British-born linguist in the University of California, Los Angeles.)

(It might also be useful to add that a number of American linguists use a modified version of the IPA, so be forewarned if you have consulted or are consulting American texts.)

First of all, the letters b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z are given their conventional values as in normal English spelling.

Here are some other symbols for consonants with examples of the sounds (italicised) from English words. The alternative symbols have been included for information and will not be used in this module.

Nah sekian sob.

source : Modul UT/
author : mas ririd



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